Month: July 2019


Environmental Health Sciences can be defined as the assessment, evaluation and control of chemical, physical and biological hazards in order to protect public health. The sanitary revolution began in the late 1800s when it was determined that basic environmental sanitation and hygiene were necessary to prevent communicable diseases. Sewage disposal and water quality control were necessary to prevent diseases like cholera.

Today environmental health science is concerned with more global issues due to expanding populations. Such issues are: the pandemic flu and West Nile Virus. Also, global warming and ozone depletion are probably the two major global environmental health issues today, but yet the most controversial. The environmental health scientist must be well prepared to evaluate such controversial issues, as the ramifications do affect public health.

With globalization and exponential advancement in technology, the environmental health scientist must have broad knowledge of health sciences, not just sewage disposal and water quality control. An advanced degree in public health (MPH) provides the necessary general background as well as specific environmental health science knowledge.

Environmental health scientists must also be prepared to work in a team environment with other health scientists and professionals. Problem solving will require a team effort with: doctors, nurses, lawyers, engineers, epidemiologists, law enforcement and city/county/state/government officials. It is not acceptable to have technical knowledge, one must have a broad knowledge of related subjects.

The following subjects will provide basic public health knowledge as well as specific environmental health science knowledge:

environmental toxicology, public health and policy, epidemiology, statistics, global communicable diseases, public health infrastructure, fundamentals of air/water/land pollution.


Source by Darin Cozatt


If you are on a tight budget, purchasing used gym equipment can be a smart decision you could make. However, the used equipment that you select should be in good condition. The following article provides tips that would help in making an informed decision when buying used fitness equipment.

Buying Tip

Irrespective of the equipment that you have selected to buy, it would do well to find out a reliable and trustworthy seller with a reputation for delivering quality products that are priced reasonably. When selecting the right equipment, you need to keep certain things in mind so that the purchased equipment does not falter when used later on.

Check for Functionality

Buying used gym equipment should not be at the cost of compromising on the durability. Ensure that the equipment is working completely fine. Examine the different features of the machine and find out the presence of any damage. Try the machine and verify if its features are working fine and safe.

Check for Maintenance

Take time to inspect and find out if the gym equipment is maintained well. It is important that no damages are done to the vital components of the equipment so that it is safe when working with the equipment. The presence of cracks and tears in the parts are the results of poor maintenance.

Check for Comfort Level

It is important that you feel comfortable at the time of using the equipment. Otherwise, there are chances of sustaining injury and health issues while using it. So don’t buy equipment simply because the deal appears lucrative.

Choose from Reputed Brands

See to it that the maker of the used fitness equipment is a reliable and reputed manufacturer and provides a warranty on the parts. So going for quality brands ensures the durability of the equipment.

Check for Warranty

Although used fitness machines do not come with a warranty, but in certain cases, the seller could provide a warranty of up to a year. Check with the manufacturer to find out if they provide after-sales service.

Go Through Customer Reviews

It makes sense to buy gym equipment that has a considerable number of testimonials to its credit. Searching online or reading fitness magazines about customer reviews of the equipment will help to judge the reliability of the equipment.

Buy at the Right Price

Before buying used equipment, find out the retail price of the machine. For this, you could go through the classified ads as given for the local area or browse the websites and compare prices to find the best deals available that meet your budget. Once the actual market value is found out, it would be much easier for you to bargain with the seller for the used fitness equipment. Before inking the deal, verify if any additional expenses like installation cost, delivery charges, and servicing cost need to be paid.

On the whole, it would be beneficial to do one’s own research before purchasing used gym equipment. Purchasing in haste could mean regret later. On the whole, an impulsive buy is not recommended when buying used gym equipment.


Source by Barry Wilkins


With clowns and clown attacks making news headlines around the world it’s hardly surprising that more and more people are developing a fear of clowns.

But even before this latest phenomenon, a good percentage of the population are known to have suffered from a phobia of clowns – or ‘coulrophobia’.

In fact, it’s thought that around 2% of the population suffer from clown phobia, with the ‘ihateclowns’ Facebook page listing almost half a million likes.

Why Are Clowns So Scary?

Perhaps the main reason why clowns can appear so frightening is because the clown’s make-up makes it impossible to read genuine human emotion.

In order to feel safe, as sighted people we depend on visual cues, facial expressions especially help us to quickly assess a person’s character.

With the clown’s painted face we just cannot do that. The person is hiding behind the make-up, and if a person is hiding we might think that he has something to hide – perhaps even something not at all nice.

Menace Behind the Make-Up

We might feel that there’s something dark or sinister lurking behind the make-up – as was the case with the American mass murderer John Wayne Gacey who in the 1970s, dressed as a clown called ‘Pogo, killed over 35 young people. In fact, Gacey is reported to have said that as a clown "you can get away with murder". He didn’t of course, since he was executed for his crimes.

The ‘menace behind the make-up’ is something that the movies have picked up on. Heath Ledger’s version of ‘The Joker’ in the Batman movie for example was made up as a clown, and this made him seem even more menacing, more unsettling.

And of course there is an element of lunacy in the clown’s antics, something unpredictable and out of control about them that can be really unsettling, something that perhaps disturbs our sense of ‘normality’.

The Cultural Factor

There seems to be a cultural factor in children’s response to clowns, however. Research from the University of Sheffield in the UK, for example, found that most children disliked and even feared images of clowns.

While Italian researchers found that children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses got better faster after playing with ‘therapeutic clowns’.

Whatever the reason for people’s dislike or fear of clowns, the ‘clown attacks’ now hitting the news will certainly add to this, perhaps for years to come.


Source by Peter James Field


I have a love for fitness and I started a fitness blog several years ago to keep myself motivated to workout. For the longest time, I wanted to have a career in the fitness industry and brave personal training some consideration but it never worked out for me due to one thing or another. However, I found a much better homebased business opportunity in the fitness industry, that anyone with a passion for health and fitness can do as well.

This opportunity is Team Beachbody. You may or may not be familiar with the company but you may have heard of some of their top selling products such as P90X, Hip Hop Abs, and Turbo Jam just to name a few. You can start your own fitness company and run it part-time in order to grow it to your full-time business as slow or as fast as you want.

Personal trainers are great candidates for this business because of their background in fitness and the fact that the average person will follow their lead much easier compared to someone else.

If you are a full-time trainer, you can still grow your business part-time. The major requirements are living healthy, staying fit, helping others reach their fitness goals, and supporting your customers and coaches. As a trainer, you are already doing most of that already.

Team Beachbody promotes sharing and not selling. You share the company's vision while helping people to get fit and grow their own fitness business if they have the desire to do so. Discover how easy it is to get started by getting in touch with me below.


Source by Eartha Haines


Line Dancing is the Second Most Popular Thing Seniors Like to Do!

Line dancing is very popular among Senior Citizens. It’s fun, there is great camaraderie among the Seniors, and you don’t need a partner, and it’s an easy way to stay healthy, both mentally and physically.

An Activity Director at a Retirement/Convalescent Home in California told me that line dancing is only second in popularity to square dancing and only because square dancing is an older form of dancing and more Seniors are familiar with it. Also, many Seniors were in square dance clubs and went to meetings each week when they were younger.

At almost any class in line dance instructions, you will see many Seniors. There are several dances suitable for people with limited mobility, such as  “Tush Push”, “Electric Slide”, “Country Walkin'”, “Dancin’ with You” and the ever beautiful, “Waltz Across Texas”, which I love to do to Collin Raye’s “Dreamin’ My Dreams of You.” There is even a “sit down” tongue-in-cheek line dance by Knox Rhine called “Take A Break” which doesn’t even need music! Most classes feature easy line dances as well as more advanced.

Health Benefits

The health benefits of line dancing are obvious. Everyone benefits from exercise and line dancing is so much fun, it doesn’t seem like exercise. I read a report that said that people who line dance could possibly live an extra ten years. This may or may not be true, but it’s certainly something to consider.

Here is a list of some of the health benefits you will enjoy if you line dance on a regular basis:

* Cardiovascular and muscular strength and flexibility become better;

* High blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, as well as high blood sugar levels can all improve;

* Coordination improves as you work through the different movements;

* Lung capacity can increase;

* Bone strength can increase; bone loss can be stopped or slowed down

* Help with weight control – half an hour of continuous line dancing can burn an average of 300 calories

* The social aspects of  line dancing are obvious. Your sense of well-being and the camaraderie you have with the other dancers is wonderful for your health.

Line Dance Videos are available everywhere

There are many line dance DVDs and videos that Seniors can purchase and use to practice in the privacy of their homes. This is especially good if they are shy about going to a regular class or don’t have a class in their community that teaches line dancing for seniors.

Scooter Lee and Jo Thompson

The lovely and talented singer/songwriter Scooter Lee has many classes targeted towards Seniors through her non-profit organization, Dancing for the Dream®, which she started with choreographer Jo Thompson.

As popular as her music was for line dancing, at first Scooter Lee didn’t line dance herself, even after being diagnosed with numerous health issues and being overweight.  Finally, after learning to eat right, exercise, and create good habits in her life with positive thinking and positive people, she included line dancing in her routine for good health.  Though the damage to her joints and organs was not reversible, Lee started to pay attention to her own health, eventually losing approximately 150 pounds in five years.

Where to Find Classes for Line Dancin’ Fun

You can find many classes for line dance instructions just for Senior Citizens at Community Centers, Parks and Recreation Departments, and Church Groups all over America, as well as at classes at dance studios.

If you live in the Eastern part of America, check out the classes available through Step In the Name of Life(TM).  They have classes in at least 32 cities.  Jamie Gant started the first group in Florida so his grandmother would have a place to go to line dance for her health.  After going with her, he was ready to start classes for everyone.  Their goal:  Stepping Away Diabetes, High Cholesterol, High Blood Pressure & More(TM).


Source by Renee Benzaim


Garmin, in recent years, has made the GPS fitness sports watch their own. The early Garmin Watch models, 101, 201 and 301 were ahead of their time, but the next generation of GPS watches released a few years ago (the 205, 305 and 405) had much improved GPS chipsets enabling them to lock onto a signal much faster than their predecessors and perhaps more importantly, stay locked on.

If you are looking to take their training to a new level, you should consider what a GPS watch has to offer.

A GPS watch can measure your speed and distance traveled as well as plot an accurate route of your runs which can be viewed on computer. It is a fitness trainer, coach, and essential analytical tool all in one that allows you to set speed or pace alerts to notify you if you are running too fast or too slow, plus a lot more.

In April of 2009, Garmin released an upgrade to the Forerunner 305XT, which is based on Garmin's exhaustive analysis of athletes feedback and has resolved in some pleasant changes.

The first way the 310CX differs from the Forerunner 305 is it's looks.

Like the Forerunner 305 this watch is large and chunky and does not pass an every day watch, but with extra size comes much greater functionality. The 305XT has the same large-sized screen, but a stylish silver face opposed to the red of 305 and blue of the 205.

Incidentally the 205 and 305 Garmin watches are identical except the 205 monitor device, the new 310XT does not have two distinct models.

The new watch features the same button layout, the only difference is the two buttons on the front of the watch are smaller in size then it's predecessor. It's unclear if this is and advantage or disadvantage in practice, but I'm guess it's not a lot different.

Perhaps the most noted advantage of this watch is the fact that the Forerunner 310CX is water resistant to 50 meters . The Forerunner 305 is water resistant to IPX7 standards, which means it can be submersed in water to 1 meter for up to 30 minutes without harm. While triathletes will be rejoicing at this feature, it should be noted that heart rate monitoring and GPS features do not work while you are swimming .

Never-the-less, this watch can be used to time your swims without fear of harm which will please many.

The other big advantage of the Forerunner 310XT is its 20 hour battery life .

GPS watches consume a lot of power when in full GPS mode. The Forerunner 305 has a typical battery life of around 8-10 hours. While this is enough for most activities, some ultra endurance events can extend well beyond this limit. With an 100% + increase in battery life to around 20 hours, the new Forerunner watch will clearly please ultra athletes for who the old limitation was a problem.

The Garmin Watch comes with a rechargeable battery . While jacking it into the recharger overnight is not a major deal, not having to do so every night will certainly be a welcome change for most users.

Other improvements include a better GPS receiver with the addition of HotFix, heart rate based calorie computing and wireless computer connectivity via an ANT stick. The wireless setup is the same as the Forerunner 405's, but unlike the 405 the 310XT does not support unit-to-unit transfer.

While the new upgrades are exciting, the 310XT does feature some not downgrades that Garmin has been quiet about. There is no support for routes, whereas the Forerunner 205 and 305 could store 50 routes in memory and no simple workouts, a quick-start mode where you enter time, distance or calorie goals and off you go.

So in summary, the Forerunner 310XT differs from the 205 and 305 Forerunner watches in these ways:

  • New stylish look and feel
  • 50 meter water resistance
  • Heart based calorie calculation
  • Extended 20 hour battery life
  • Improved GPS reception
  • Wireless connectivity to PC or Mac
  • No support for routes
  • No simple workouts

Overall, the new watch from Garmin is not revolutionary, but it is certainly very cool! …


The journey to attain ultimate health and wellness begins with building a lifestyle which supports you. A health and wellness oriented lifestyle is built by making healthy habits and choices part of your daily routines.You do not need to completely overhaul your entire life all at once. These changes can be made gradually.

Physical Fitness

The United States Department of Health and Human Services published the first Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans in 2008. It recommends 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity daily or a minimum of 2 hours and 30 minutes per week for adults ages 18 to 64 years. Strength training for all of the major body parts,legs, hips, arms, shoulders, abdomen, back and chest is recommended at least twice a week.

If you are not already physically active, incorporating fitness activities into your life does not need to pose a major challenge. A wide range of physical activities meet the guidelines. Examples of moderate physical activity include dancing, brisk walking, bicycle riding and more.

Keep in mind, 30 minutes of moderate activity provides the minimum required to gain health benefits. More vigorous activities, jumping rope, rock climbing and swimming provide even greater health benefits. Extending the amount of time spent doing any physical activity also increases health benefits.

To successfully integrate physical fitness activities into your life, make them part of your daily schedule. Set aside time in your daily planner and add a reminder to the event on your phone or watch. The most important things you can do are show up for the activity and perform some level of physical activity. Even if it does not equal the full 30 minutes, you’re still building the habit of physical activity.

Keys to Success:

• Start with an activity you’ll enjoy.

• If you are a social person, join an exercise group or workout with friends.

• Remember every little bit counts. If you exercise for 20 minutes twice a day or in 10 minute increments throughout the day, you can meet the requirement of 2 hours and 30 minutes per week around your schedule.

• Block out your exercise time on your calendar.


Along with physical fitness, ultimate health and wellness hinges on a healthy and balanced diet. People who eat well experience a variety of health benefits, better weight maintenance, lower chances of developing diabetes or heart disease and lower instances of illness. As recommended by the 2010 issue of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a healthy diet includes significant amounts of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, lean proteins and unrefined grains. The recommendations also suggest lowering sodium, added sugar, trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet.

Before you look to cut things from your diet, work on adding healthy choices to your meals and snacks. Take a proactive positive approach as you make changes to what you eat. Drink a non-carbonated beverage instead of a pop or soda; you can choose unsweetened herbal tea which still provides flavor, lemon water or plain water. Select brown rice instead of white rice with your meals. Just as with exercise, small changes add up to a complete transition to a more healthful lifestyle.

Keys to Success:

• Choose one or two small changes to incorporate into your diet each month.

• Experiment. Eating healthy needs to be enjoyable for you to make it a part of your lifestyle. Eat different foods and a variety of ways to prepare them and enjoy the ones you like.

• Make sure to keep your daily menu varied so you don’t get bored with your food choices and go off track.

Mind-Body Connection

Our emotional state can affect our food choices, our level of physical activity and our ability to maintain positive social engagement. Foods high in sugar and fat satisfy the pleasure and reward centers in our brains.

If we are stressed or unhappy, many of us reach for rich foods to make ourselves feel better. Sometimes this is a conscious decision; many times it is not. Also, feeling angry, unhappy or depressed saps energy, making it more difficult to exercise or pursue some other physical activity; we just don’t feel like it.

There are many ways to …


One of the more common questions I hear regarding kettlebells is, what is the benefit of competition/pro style kettlebells over standard kettlebells? The answer is simple, consistency. With competition/pro style kettlebells, you will be able to maintain the same form every single time you use them. This is true whether you are using a 8kg or a 32kg kettlebell. With standard kettlebells every size kettlebell has a different dimension. Whether it be the handle diameter, the dimension between the handle and the bell, or the bell size, it will always differ with standard kettlebells. It will not differ like that with the competition/pro style kettlebells.

The manufacturing process of the pro style kettlebells allows us to produce a kettlebell that has the same dimensions on every bell regardless of the size. That means the handles will always be the same diameter, the dimension between the bell and the handle will always be the same, and the size of the bell with never fluctuate. This will enable you to consistently, with every movement, keep the same form and feel regardless of the weight. This is an extremely big advantage over standard kettlebells.

Another benefit of the competition/pro style kettlebells is the weight tolerance. On a competition/pro style kettlebell the weight tolerance is typically +/-.3%. That’s right, less than a half of a percent. That means that even on a 32kg kettlebell your weight might fluctuate about. 2 lbs(3.2 ounces). Again, that will only help create a more consistent lift and movement on all of your workouts.

Competition/pro style kettlebells are also 100% steel construction. This differs from standard kettlebells which are typically solid cast iron. Because steel is stronger than cast iron, this will generally create a higher quality kettlebell that will withstand more abuse.

Think of this in terms of the bumper plates that Olympic lifters use. Every bumper plate has the same diameter. Why is that important? Again the answer is simple, it is consistency. If you are doing Olympic movements like a clean for example, and the 10lb plates are a different diameter than the 45lb plates, when you do a 65lb clean you are starting at a completely different position than if you were doing a 135lb clean. If you cannot have consistency with those plates, you will never have a consistent form. The more consistent your form, the safer and easier it will be to move up in weight. Why would you want it to be any different when you are doing kettlebell work? You wouldn’t!

So why do people use standard kettlebells instead of competition if there are so many benefits to the competition kettlebells? Well, one of the main drawbacks to the competition kettlebells is the price. They are, because of the quality, more expensive than a standard kettlebell. That means you would have to weigh your options as to what is more important, consistency and quality, or money in your wallet? At Christian’s Fitness factory, we have our own line of competition kettlebells at very competitive prices.


Source by Josh Baughman


Bouncing back from a cold by consuming more alkaline foods and health drinks can give you an energetic fresh start. This year’s cold and flu season seems to be hitting harder than usual. The good news is that when it’s over, your body is cleaner, leaner and should function better, assuming you don’t start piling in the junk again. Here is a good way to get back your energy and create better health than you had before the cold hit.

First, let the cold run its course. It is really your body’s way of eliminating toxins that have built up over time. Don’t try to stifle the runny nose and coughs with antihistamines or other drugs that only delay the inevitable. If you slow the process down, then you are only prolonging the pain, and you may not get the full benefit of a natural cleanse. In my experience, a good, cleansing cold lasts about 7-10 days. Think of it as a natural cleanse. Then, get more out of the recovery with alkaline foods and natural health drinks.

When you feel like the cold is starting to disappear, you will probably feel that it is time to start some fresh, new healthy habits. One of the best things you can do after a cold is develop healthier eating habits. A good way to do that is by including more alkaline foods and health drinks in your diet. This means, consume more foods that form an alkaline ash in the bloodstream after they are digested and burned for fuel.

  • What are alkaline foods that help you bounce back from a cold?

Think about fresh fruits and vegetables, natural foods that are lower in animal protein, health drinks without sugar or artificial sweeteners and food grade herbs, not medicinal herbs.

  • Some of the more common acid forming foods can be caffeine, chocolate, beef, pork, fish, alcohol, soda, even beans and rice.

Experts recommend that your daily alkaline food intake should be about 80% of your diet, compared with only 20% acid forming foods. The theory is, and I think it does hold water, that it is harder for illness and disease to take hold in a more alkaline environment.

Through a great deal of research, and personal experience, I have discovered numerous health benefits with more alkaline foods in my diet. By maintaining that 80/20 ratio, I have experienced fewer arthritic pains and digestive problems. Also, by adding health drinks that are less acid forming, I feel better knowing that my body has the tools it needs to work on other issues such as eliminating toxins, rather than constantly struggling just to maintain internal pH balance.

So, the next time you are recovering from a cold, take advantage of your cleaned out system while taking your health and fitness to a new level. Get your energy, stamina and power back with a fresh boost. Search the Internet to find natural alkaline foods and health drinks for pH balance. Begin incorporating more of these into your life while avoiding so many acid forming foods and you will feel the difference.


Source by Cliff Smith


Now I want to share with you my journey into Zumba Fitness and why I teach it.

My journey started about eight years ago. The gym I belonged to was playing Latin music one day when I had come to work out. I naturally asked, “Why the Latin music?” They had said they were starting a new program at the gym called Zumba Fitness. I asked when the class was because I wanted to check it out.

Now I will take you way back to 2001, when I went to Mexico for my wedding anniversary. While I was there I loved all the catchy Latin beats and could not help but want to move to them. All over the resorts, tours and night clubs they were playing this amazing music. Now mind you I have no idea what they were saying but there was something very intoxicating about it.

OK back to the gym, when I heard this music I knew I had to attend this class, I was hooked. I went to every Zumba Fitness class they offered at the gym I belonged to. I took the classes for about a year or but they reduced the amount of classes they were offering for some reason. I didn’t want the party to stop! I asked my instructor, how can I teach Zumba Fitness? She told me to visit their website to get more information and try attending a training session

So I did. I attended my Zumba Fitness B1 instructor training in Toronto in June of 2009. Yes I was crazy enough to drive eight hours there and back with a full day of training in between! I also traveled with another instructor from the gym that I was a member of as she was also taking the training.

I had talked to people at the gym I belong to and thought to myself, how cool would that be to have been a member of this gym for more than 20 years and now may be teaching there. Well let’s just say they put me through even more training, months of it actually, I was forced to drag my then two year daughter all over the place for trainings and such and in the end I was disappointed. So I had two choices, give it all up or become the best Zumba Fitness instructor I could be.

Naturally I chose to not give up without a fight! I practiced probably four to six hours a day at my home. I then learned of a substitute job and took it. This place gave me a chance and I am forever grateful. They had nicely told me I needed some work and I knew that. They had me attend their instructor’s class and she was very nice. I learned a lot from her.

She would let me do a song in front of her class if I had one ready so I could get used to being in front of people. Once I was confident enough I sent out resumes all over! Some places asked me to do auditions for them and said I was not what they were looking for.

The first teaching job I got was at The Vollmer Center in 2009 and I am still there today! All through the years I have taught at many locations but I still remain at The Vollmer Center as I love my group, some people have been with me from the start.

I love teaching for many reasons. I still love the Latin music. I love making people happy and feel good about themselves. I love helping people reach their goals and I have made many great friends in the process.

To those I have met along my journey, thank you. I never gave up and hung in there. I love where I am today happy and confident.


Source by Jodie Komsic

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