Tag: Control

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A recent mortality study conducted by the non-profit Society of Actuaries indicates that life expectancies for both women and men have increased by roughly two years since 2000. To be precise, the study showed that the average 65-year-old woman in the U.S. is expected to live 88.8 years, up from 86.4 in 2000. Life expectancy for the average U.S. man age 65 is now 86.6 years, up from 84.6 in 2000.

While this may be good news for retirees and their families, it’s not necessarily good news for their retiree medical benefits. Also known as “post-retirement health insurance,” these benefits are typically employer-sponsored benefit plans for retired workers 55 and older.

Many baby boomers covered by retiree medical plans are relying on future employer-paid medical benefits, but are likely to be disappointed to learn that these benefit plans can be changed or terminated. ERISA-governed benefits plans typically contain a “reservation of rights” provision allowing the plan sponsor to change or terminate all or parts of the plan.

Escalating health care costs and increased risk concerns have forced many employers to reduce or eliminate retiree medical benefits. In a recent survey titled “2015 Survey on Retiree Health Care Strategies,” Towers Watson uncovered additional factors influencing employers to reconsider their approach to retiree medical benefits, including:

— Increased financial reporting requirements for benefit-related balance sheet liabilities

— Ongoing administrative expenses

— ERISA obligations, such as reporting, disclosure, and fiduciary responsibilities

— Lack of an efficient funding vehicle

Traditionally, employers have been able to control expenses and risk by such cost-cutting measures as, for example, shifting costs to retirees, limiting or ending benefits for new hires, capping the company subsidy, and changing retiree eligibility requirements. Employers are finding, however, that these conventional actions are still falling short of the amount of cost and risk control needed.

Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has created new ways for employers to meet the retiree medical needs, while still controlling cost and minimizing risk. For Medicare-eligible retirees, for example, nearly 80% of employers are either using or considering using the services of a private Medicare exchange to aid retirees with their individual coverage.

Additionally, new insurance products now allow employers to “de-risk” heir balance sheet by transferring the retiree medical benefit liability to an insurance company through the purchase of a group annuity. The annuity then allows retirees to receive tax-free funding for life, which they then can use for their medical benefits.

For pre-Medicare retirees, many employers have determined that the individual plan market and public health insurance exchanges will provide a functional alternative to employer-sponsored coverage. Towers Watson reports the following as part of their survey results:

— Eight percent of retiree medical plan sponsors are confident in the public exchanges as a viable alternative for 2015, with the confidence level rising to 35% by 2017.

— Fifty-three percent of employers surveyed said they will reassess their current approach to providing pre-Medicare health benefits by 2017 to take into account public insurance exchanges and federal subsidies.

— Seventeen percent of employers said they would consider ending coverage for pre-Medicare retirees altogether. When doing so, they would provide access via a private exchange which would then act as a coordinator to the public exchanges.

With public and private exchanges simplifying access to, and easing the process of buying individual plans, many employers will evaluate alternative retiree medical benefit strategies that will controls costs while still meeting retiree medical needs.

April, 2015

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Source by Mark Johnson, Ph.D., J.D.

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According to WHO globally dengue disease is 10th most common cause of mortality
Two-third of the world population is at risk of contracting dengue fever. There are 50 -100 million cases of dengue fever each year. Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus; family Flaviviridae). Dengue viruses are small, single-stranded, RNA viruses. There are four antigenically-related but distinct serotypes, dengue 1, dengue 2, dengue 3 and dengue. This virus enters the human body through the bite of Aedes mosquito that carry one of the four strains of dengue virus.

There are basically two strategies employed:

1. Study of vector population

2. Evaluation of possible larvicidal activity of some selected plant extracts

On the ground of above strategies and experiments we concluded that A. Squamosa and A. Indica are Good inhibitors of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) breeding. Even if temephos seems to be more effective, leaves extracts are bio degradable, environmentally safe and non toxic to humans as compared to synthetic insecticides such as Temephos or DDT.This study will help to provide basis for developing more effective prevention strategy including bio environmental factors responsible for mosquito breeding & new mosquito control measures.

Research papers highlighting this problem and possible solutions were presented in National conferences on medical microbiology and biotechnology: IAMM, 2004, Mumbai and Anna university Biotechexcellence 2005, Chennai, respectively. As far as culicidae family is concerned knowledge of developmental biology is limited. Therefore it is necessary to study and try to modify the mosquito development in a such a way that mosquitoes will be recognized as friends of human kind and not nuisance.

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Source by Mangesh Chorge

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Gone are the days when people relied on condoms, diaphragms, and spermicide to protect them from unwanted pregnancy. With the number of unwanted pregnancies both in teens and adults on the rise, more and more people are turning to other forms of contraceptive. With so many options on the market today, it is important to fully understand side effects and benefits of each type.

The Pill

The phrase "The Pill" is used to refer to any type of birth control pill. There are over one dozen types of pills that are prescribed by doctors today. Some common brands are OrthoEvra Low, Yazmin, Seasonique, and Lutera. This prescription is filled monthly. You take a pill every day that increases specific hormones in your body to decrease the chance of pregnancy. It is important to take these at the same time every day for them to be most effective. There is one row of pills that are considered placebo pills, these do not contain hormones and trigger your body to menstruate. The pill's largest benefit is that it decreases acne in patients.

The Ring

NuvaRing is rapidly becoming one of the favorite choices in birth control. This is a flexible, vaginal ring that is inserted once a month. You do not need to visit a doctor for this. Insert the ring and leave it in for three weeks. At the end of the third week, remove the ring for one week and replace it with a new one. As of 2010 more than half of all health insurances are not covering NuvaRing, however that is likely to change in the future as it becomes more popular. The only way to know if your insurance covers it or not is by contacting them or looking over their prescription drug list.

Implanon & Mirena

Two long term choices in birth control are Implanon and Mirena. Implanon is a small (approximately 2 inches long), flexible rod that is injected into your arm. It slowly releases hormones over the course of three years. Mirena is a modern day IUD. These work by irritating the inside of the uterus to prevent it from releasing eggs. Each month you need to check the threads on Mirena, this is explained to you by your gynecologists. Mirena can last up to five years. Spotting may occur during the use of either of these methods. Some women experience a complete stop in bleeding all together. Both of these can also cause weight gain and acne.

The Shot & The Patch

The least relied upon forms of birth control are the Depovera Shot and the birth control patch. Patients receive the shot once every three months. It releases a level of hormones that trick the body into believing it is in menopause. Patients often experience spotting throughout the year. The shot is also associate with drastic weight gain in patients. The patch is a clear hormonal patch that can be placed on the arm, back of shoulder, lower back or abdomen. It releases a steady flow of hormones for one month and then is replaced with a new patch.

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Source by Robert W Mccormack

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Women are such amazing creatures that it’s downright mind boggling at times. I know what you’re thinking – you and I are both women, so such self-praise sounds a bit excessive.

But really, think about it for a minute. Our physical makeup is dramatically different from that of our male counterparts. We have to train nearly twice as hard to make any substantial gains in the gym, and we’re genetically preprogrammed to store more fat than men, all because of the differences in our hormonal makeup.

Let’s face it, ladies, our bodies are built for child rearing, not heavy lifting or figure competitions. Regardless of whether those babies are a goal of yours or not, your system will always do its best to ensure a soft & comfortable atmosphere for that baby’s development during the first nine months of its existence.

Nature’s plan.

What’s even more interesting is the fact that if you’re actively working on preventing pregnancy, you’ll likely have an increased hormonal imbalance and even more pronounced effects of the estrogen hormone doing its job.

Not sure what I’m talking about? There is a phrase that will conjure up memories of bloat, fat gain, nausea, spotting or breakthrough bleeding, mood swings, and even severe headaches. It’s a short phrase with a lot of power. Ready?

“The Pill.”

Most of those who’ve tried birth control pills are well aware of their possible side effects. These are to be expected; anytime hormone levels are changed in any way, the body is bound to let you know of the changes.

Birth control pills are comprised of synthetic estrogen and progesterone (or in some cases, just one of those two). Since the menstrual cycle and ovulation are regulated by these hormones, this increase results in a variety of changes within the reproductive system, which results in pregnancy prevention.

Now, as any woman in the fitness industry knows, we try our very best to decrease the female hormones in our bodies. We all know that increased levels of testosterone, along with decreased estrogen hormones, are essential to the sense of well-being and overall health.

It’s testosterone that helps us gain lean mass, reduce fat storage, increase sexual desire, ward off that “I’m PMS’ing-leave-me-alone” mood, keep our skin healthy, and our minds sharp. Excessive levels of its opposing hormone, estrogen, produce the exact opposite effect on our bodies.

Clearly, increasing your very own estrogen levels by going on the pill sounds more than just a little crazy. It is, however, seen as an absolute necessity by most women. Many of us just accept the unfortunate side effects and learn to deal with the consequences of a less than perfect hormonal balance.

After all, what else is there?

That’s the question we’ll answer in this article. I’ve done some extensive research on the topic, including interviewing numerous fitness and figure competitors regarding their personal experiences with birth control pills. Each of these girls has discovered what works for her; whether it’s a lower dose estrogen pill or a viable alternative that does the job while keeping those hormone levels at least somewhat conducive to her hardcore fitness lifestyle and ultra-lean body goals.

The Pill

Types of Birth Control Pills

There are two basic categories: those containing progestin only, and combination pills containing both progestin and estrogen.

Progestin-only pills contain no estrogen. These are sometimes referred to as the “mini-pill,” and are considered ideal for breastfeeding women since the presence of estrogen reduces milk production.

The mini-pill works by thickening the cervical mucus, thereby preventing sperm from entering the uterus. They must be taken at the same time every day.

While these pills don’t contain any estrogen, they’re not considered figure-friendly by any means. You see, the pill’s progesterone component has been shown to increase appetite – which of course makes it very difficult to diet, resulting in weight gain.

Some of the other side effects of the mini-pill include irregular or heavy bleeding, spotting, and severe headaches. Additionally, progestin-only pills have been shown to be slightly less effective than their combination counterparts – so that the chance of becoming a mommy is actually increased when choosing these over estrogen containing birth control pills.

Combination …

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