Tag: Diabetes

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Are you experiencing some of these symptoms of the 4Ps: Polyphagia (excessive hunger), Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyuria (frequent urination) or Pruritis (itching)? Or you easily get sleepy and tired? Or you have some close relatives, your father or mother, an uncle and so forth with diabetes? Well, you should be aware for having diabetes mellitus. However, to establish a sound diagnosis, you need to visit your physician who may as well send you for a blood test to look into your blood sugar levels…

There are several tests that need to be conducted to diagnose whether you have diabetes or not. Those tests include:

#1 – Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT). This test will measure your blood sugar or glucose levels. You will be asked to fast for a minimum of 8 hours prior to taking your blood sample. This test is usually arranged so you can do the fasting in the evening and your blood sample to be taken in the morning. The result will show whether you have diabetes or in stage of pre-diabetes.

#2 – Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This test is meant to measure your blood glucose levels in two stages. The first one is similar to the FPGT which is taking your blood sample after a fasting period of a minimum of 8 hours. After your blood take, you will be asked to drink a kind of syrup (sugar diluted in water). The second blood sample will be taken after 2 other hours of your drinking. This test will establish the diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes.

#3 – Random plasma glucose test.Your blood glucose level can also be measured at any time, regardless the time you have been eating your last meal. This test, together with an evaluation of other symptoms, like the above 4Ps, is used to establish the diagnosis of diabetes but not pre-diabetes.

Positive results of those three tests should be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test as well as the oral glucose tolerance test on another day.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test

This is the test of choice to diagnose diabetes since it is most convenience and reliable when taken in the morning. Test results can be read as follow:

  • A fasting sugar level of 99 milligrams/dL or below means that your glucose level is normal
  • A fasting sugar level of 100 – 125 milligrams/dL, concludes that you at a stage of pre-diabetes which is also called by impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It means that you are more likely to get type-2 diabetes in the future, but does not appear yet.
  • A sugar level of 126 milligrams/dL and beyond, means that you have diabetes mellitus which however, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on another day.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

Research has concluded that the OGTT seems to be more sensitive compared to the FPGT in diagnosing the stage of pre-diabetes. However, it is less convenient to manage. Test results can be read as follow:

  • A blood sugar level after 2 hours of 139 milligrams/dL or below means that your glucose level is normal
  • A blood sugar level between 140 – 199 milligrams/dL 2 hours after drinking the syrup, concludes that you are in a stage of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, which means that you are more likely to develop type-2 diabetes in the future, but it does not appear yet.
  • A 2-hour blood sugar level of higher than 200 milligrams/dL, means that you have diabetes mellitus which however, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on another day.

To establish the diagnosis of Gestational diabetes, plasma glucose levels measured during the OGTT can be observed. But in this case, blood sugar levels will be checked 4 times during a test with an interval of one hour between two blood takes. If your blood sugar levels are above normal twice at the minimum during the test, you may be considered to have gestational diabetes.

The following scheme is showing the above-normal results for the OGTT for gestational diabetes cases:

  • Fasting – 95 milligrams/dL or beyond
  • After 1 hour – 180 milligrams/dL or beyond
  • After 2 hours

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Eating wisely is one of the most potent ways to fight against the effects of Type 2 diabetes. Both what you eat and how much you eat. Do you know saturated fats and refined sugar make up about a quarter of the average person's caloric diet?

Sugar is found in everything, and unfortunately, if we are not careful about the foods we consume, we can wind up adding excessive amounts of refined sugar to our diet. Foods like yogurt and even salad dressing, usually deemed as "health foods," are often notorious for containing added sugar. However, there are ways you can avoid adding these foods to your diet by making your recipes at home, and by using healthy sugar swaps to sweeten your recipes.

Let us take a look at five healthy sugar swaps you can use in healthy baking and to sweeten things like your morning cup of coffee or your morning bowl of oatmeal.

Five Healthy Sugar Swaps …

1. Raw Honey. Raw honey is an excellent natural sweetener, and unlike processed sugar, it contains added health benefits. Raw honey holds impressive antibacterial and antiviral properties making it a great food to support your immune health. You can use raw honey in place of refined sweeteners in your baking recipes, drizzled over oatmeal, or mixed into your morning tea.

2. Pure Maple Syrup. Pure maple syrup is another excellent sugar alternative as it contains vitamins and minerals and tastes great when used in healthy baking recipes. Try using pure maple syrup in place of refined table sugar when you make treats like muffins, or use to sweeten a bowl of unsweetened yogurt.

3. Stevia. Stevia is another natural sweetener option that comes with the benefit of having zero carbohydrates. A little goes a long way when it comes to using Stevia in your recipes, and is an ideal option for anyone who wants to stay away from sweeteners containing added sugar.

4. Bananas. Bananas are another healthy sweetening option as they are naturally sweet, complement many baking recipes and provides fiber to help slow the absorption of carbs.

5. Blackstrap Molasses. Blackstrap molasses is incredibly sweet, and it also contains some added health benefits. Molasses is rich in iron and can also help support digestive regularity. When it comes to using molasses, you only need a small amount, so start with a teaspoon or so.

You would be surprised at how all of these natural sweeteners complement your recipes and how easy it is to avoid processed sugar when you add these to your diet. However, keep in mind even though these are natural sweeteners; they are still sources of carbohydrates, minus the stevia. Just be mindful of using these in moderation, and you will be doing your health a tremendous favor by choosing natural sweeteners over the toxic and inflammatory refined sugar options.

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Source by Beverleigh H Piepers

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About 30.3 million Americans, 9.4% of the population, have diabetes. 7.2 million of those people remain undiagnosed which means blood sugar is not being controlled. Almost 3 times that number of 30 million have prediabetes. So doing the math – over 100 million people in the US have diabetes or prediabetes. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the US. However, that is probably grossly underestimated, as diabetic complications such as heart disease, the diabetes is not reported on the death certificate. Studies have found about 35% to 40% of people with diabetes who died had diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate. Cause of death – cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis). Diabetics are more likely to have heart disease or stroke & nerve damage (neuropathy). Diabetes doubles the risk of liver, pancreas, and endometrial cancer. It increases the risk of colorectal, breast, and bladder cancer by 20% to 50%. Certain forms of arthritis may be more common in people with certain types of diabetes.

People with type 2 diabetes have higher risks of developing osteoarthritis and gout. Diabetes causes musculoskeletal changes that lead to symptoms such as joint pain and stiffness; swelling; nodules under the skin, particularly in the fingers. Tight, thickened skin, trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, painful shoulders, and severely affected feet – diabetics are all at a higher risk level for all of these. After having had diabetes for several years, joint damage – called diabetic arthropathy – can occur.

I always think if the image of an octopus thinking of diabetes. The head/body of the octopus is the diabetes – and the 8 far reaching arms are the many complications of diabetes. The arms are strong, and they are “suckered” all the way along. Those suckers, yes that us what they are called, can suck the life out of you – just like the many complications of diabetes.

Some of the more common complications of diabetes include:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy) including erectile dysfunction
  • Kidney damage (nephropathy)
  • Eye damage (retinopathy)
  • Foot damage
  • Skin conditions
  • Hearing impairment
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • sleep apnea… and here we have yet another vicious circle of complication – sleep apnea is very highly associated with heart disease, stroke…

Now – add oxidative stress to the equation…

Oxidative stress – As discussed in many of my articles – is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body, which can lead to cell and tissue damage, DNA damage. Oxidative stress occurs naturally as a product of cellular tasks, and is dramatically compounded by the daily decisions we make and the hundreds of daily exposures we encounter, and plays a vast role in the disease and aging process. Oxidative stress, if not consciously controlled, leads to chronic inflammation.

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both microvascular and cardiovascular. The abnormal metabolic functioning of a diabetic causes mitochondrial superoxide overproduction (oxidative stress from the cells) in cells of both large and small vessels, and also in the myocardium, heart muscle tissue.

The good news: Yes diabetes would be considered an epidemic if it were contagious.

Type 2 diabetes is thought to be 90% preventable. Yes, very frequently multiple people in a family have diabetes. However, what is usually passed in is poor lifestyle choices, not “diabetic genes.”

Oxidative stress – yes it is unavoidable – again by our own cellular functions and environmental choices and exposures. However, with lifestyle modifications, nutrition, proven supplementation – we can dramatically reduce oxidative stress, slow the aging process, reduce risk of chronic illness and yes – reduce further complications of diabetes.

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Source by Shira Litwack

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Introduction:

The basic health indices in India have widely improved since we became independent in 1947, the average life expectancy has gone up, the infant mortality rates and maternal mortality rates have improved a lot but we still have a long way to go before we achieve developed or European standards.

These improvements happened because of improvement in education, sanitation, health care facilities and increase in disposable income resulting in general improvements in living standards across the board.

Today we are producing more cereals, pulses, fruits, poultry, fish and also consuming more as a result the availability of protein in our diet has improved very much resulting in taller and healthier Indians.

But along with increase in disposable income and increasing living standards there is increase in consumption of alcohol, tobacco, red meat and fatty foods.

The increase in affluence and affordability of new technological gizmos has made us more sedentary and dependent even for smallest and easiest of the job; today we tend to use mobile phone from the comforts of our home to contact grocer, pharmacist, maid, electrician, mechanic, etc.

And instead of walking to nearest convenience store, we tend to use vehicle and instead of walking or cycling for moving-around in our neighborhood we take motorized vehicle.

Many of us will have trouble remembering last time we walked a distance to catch an auto rickshaw or taxi today we tend to book taxi and it picks us up from our door step.

Which along with unresponsive or indifferent civic management has resulted in unplanned development across most of the urban centers where availability of potable water, sanitation services are under stress along with increased and unmanaged vehicular, industrial, ground, noise pollution.

In 2012 GOI with Indian council of medical research released an updated definition of overweight and revised the figures to:

If BMI (Body Mass Index) is between 18-22.9kg / m2 person is of normal weight

If BMI is 23-24.9kg / m2 the person is overweight.

If BMI is more than 25 kg / m2 the person is OBESE.

In 21st century obesity has taken epidemic proportion in India and more than 5% of population comes under definition of OBESE.

While studying of 22 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) near to MC4-R-gene, scientist have identified a SNP 12970134 to be mostly associated with waist circumference. In this study nearly 2000 people of Indian origin participated and this SNP was found to be most prevalent in this group.

Hence genetically we are predisposed towards abdominal obesity and this is one of the biggest morbidity factor behind diabetes type 2 and cardio vascular disease.

Globally 3-5 million deaths are because of obesity, 3.9% years of life lost and 3.9% of years lost to disability adjusted life years.

All the above has increased the number of Indians suffering from non-communicable lifestyle induced diseases like Cancers, Cardiac Vascular diseases, Diabetes, Hypertension, Mental Illness, breathing disorders like Asthma etc.

What is the disease burden for non-communicable prevalent disease like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in India? ( Reference: Background papers on Burden of disease in India published by National commission on macroeconomics and health)

The figures for Diabetes, CVD (Cardio vascular disease) and cancers are alarming and the biggest percentage of new cases are being reported from Urban areas and the younger men and women are as vulnerable as middle aged men.

Diabetes:

India is projected to become diabetes capital of the globe, it is estimated that in 2015 approximately 4.6 crore Indians were diabetic.

The prevalence is estimated as:

In 30-39 years age group around 6% of population is estimated to be diabetic.

In 40-49 years age group around 13% of population is estimated to be diabetic.

In 70+ years age group around 20% of population is estimated to be diabetic.

Diabetes has been recognized as one of the major contributing factor towards increase in numbers of Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) patients in India.

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

It is estimated that around 6.4 crore Indians had one or the other condition which can be classified as CVD.

Coronary Heart Disease is a mix of conditions that include Acute Myocardial Infraction, Angina Pectoris, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and inflammatory heart disease.

It …

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