Tag: Planning

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The nurse care planning process is an important aid in the treatment of patients. In turn it creates a systematic care plan approach which with the inclusion of other health care professionals allows the patients the best route to full fitness. When used effectively, the nurse planning process offers many advantages to the health care environment:

  • It’s patient-centred, helping to ensure that your patient’s health problems and his response to them are the primary focus of care.
  • It enables you to individualise care for each individual patient.
  • It promotes the patient’s participation in their care, encourages independence and concordance and gives the patient a greater sense of control – important factors in a positive health outcome. (See Putting the ‘P’ in planning.)
  • It improves communication by providing you and other nurses with a summary of the patient’s recognised problems or needs so you all work towards the same goals.
  • It promotes accountability for nursing activities, which in turn promotes quality assurance and quality health care provision.
  • It promotes critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving for the benefits of health care provision.
  • It’s outcome-focused and encourages the evaluation of results.
  • It minimises errors and omissions in care planning.

Basis for the nursing care planning process The nurse care planning process is based on the scientific method of problem-solving, which involves:

  • stating the problem you observed
  • forming a hypothesis about the solution to the problem (‘if… then’ statements)
  • developing a method to test the hypothesis
  • collecting the test data
  • analysing the data
  • drawing conclusions about the hypothesis.

A scientific fact Most people use the scientific method instinctively, without being aware they’re doing it. Simply picking out which pair of shoes best complements your favourite outfit is an exercise in the scientific method. So if you’re familiar with the scientific process, the nursing planning process probably seems familiar. Nursing process steps. The nursing planning process encompasses five steps:

  1. assessment
  2. nursing diagnosis
  3. planning
  4. implementation
  5. evaluation

Following these steps systematically in the order shown here enables you to organise and prioritise patient care in the order that is needed – especially critical for the novice nursing student. It also helps ensure that you don’t skip or overlook important patient information. When used correctly, the nursing planning process ensures that the care plan is revised when new problems arise or patient outcomes remain unmet. It also allows the nurse care plan to be discontinued when patient outcomes have been met.

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Source by Iain S Surman

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Since 1960s, career cluster resources have been used as career exploration and planning tools in schools, learning communities, and organizations across the nation. Career Clusters is a system that matches educational and career planning.

Step 1: Identifying Career Cluster Interest Areas

Career clusters are groups of similar occupations and industries. When teachers, counselors, and parents work with teens, college students, and adults, the first step is to complete career cluster assessment. The assessment identifies the highest career cluster areas. Career assessments show teens, college students, and adults rankings from one of the following 16 interests Areas or Clusters:

1. Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources

2. Architecture & Construction

3. Arts, A / V Technology & Communication

4. Business, Management & Administration

5. Education & Training

6. Finance

7. Government & Public Administration

8. Health Science

9. Hospitality & Tourism

10. Human Services

11. Information Technology

12. Law, Public Safety & Security

13. Manufacturing

14. Marketing, Sales & Service

15. Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics

16. Transportation, Distribution & Logistics

Step 2: Exploring Career Clusters and Related Careers

After pinpointing the highest career clusters, teens, college students, and adults explore the different careers and create education plans. Career cluster tools used in career and educational planning include:

  • LISA: A comprehensive career cluster database
  • Models
  • Brochures
  • Pathways
  • High school plan of study
  • Interest and Skills Areas
  • Crosswalks

After completing a career cluster assessment, teens, college students, and adults look at web sites, career models, brochures, pathways, and high school plans. One of the most unique comprehensive career cluster resources is the Louisiana Integrated Skills Assessment (LISA), an Internet program. LISA lets you explore career clusters, careers, abilities, training requirements, and more. There are 3 steps in the LISA program:

STEP 1: Click here to select a Career Cluster

STEP 2: Click here to select a Career Group

STEP 3: Explore Occupations within this Career Group

In Step 1, when you choose a career cluster, you will see a description of the cluster. When you select a career group in Step 2, you see different careers. Finally, in Step 3, you see a wealth of information:

  • Job descriptions
  • Educational and training requirements
  • Crosswalks, for example ONET, DOT, GOE, and other codes
  • Abilities
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Tasks
  • Work Values
  • Labor Market Information

Even though LISA is an awesome program, in classroom or workshop settings, you need printed materials. When using printed materials, the career model is the best place to start. Models provide excellent overviews listing the cluster definitions, sample careers, pathways, knowledge, and skills. Visual models show career clusters, the cluster subgroups, and related careers. Models are an excellent way to introduce career clusters.

For presentations, workshops, and group discussions, the career cluster brochures provide additional information. Adults and teens read about the different careers that are available in each career cluster. Teachers, counselors, and parents use the brochures to solidify adults 'and teens' potential career or educational decisions. The brochures cover topics such as:

  • Definition of career clusters
  • Careers
  • Career pathways
  • Employment outlooks
  • Skills
  • Credentials

Teachers, counselors, and parents use career pathways for more detailed information. The career pathways are subgroups or areas of concentration within career clusters. Each pathway contains career groups. The career groups have similar academic skills, technical skills, educational requirements, and training requirements. Career pathways are plans of study that outline required secondary courses, post secondary courses, and related careers. The career pathways are essential tools that teachers, counselors, parents, and other adults use to give educational planning advice.

Several web sites feature High School Plans of Study. These study plans show required, elective, and suggested courses for each grade level. The school plans also match the career clusters to related careers, career pathways, and post-secondary options. Teachers, counselors, and parents find that these school plans are guides for selecting the right high school courses to match potential careers. Beyond high school, the Utah System for Higher Education has created a College Major Guide. Parents, teachers, and counselors can use the guide to match college majors to Certificate and Degree Programs.

Additional Resources for Counselors and Teachers

For planning curriculum and educational programs, there are detailed Knowledge and Skills Charts and Cluster Crosswalks. The knowledge and Skills expand …

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This overview presents the key issues to consider when designing and executing the best estate plan. Also, the work does not stop at signing your estate plan documents; you must also complete the follow up work of beneficiary designations, memorandum to fiduciaries, etc. The goal is to avoid the pitfall of no plan done and the disaster when wills and trusts are in place but the asset ownership and beneficiary designations frustrate the plan by having assets pass to the spouse and not the trust.

If you do nothing else after reading this, write and deliver a “Memorandum to Survivors” and review asset ownership, all as described at the end of this post.

A comprehensive estate plan can accomplish many goals, such as providing for survivors, ensuring your children are cared for, determining the flow of your assets upon your death, and reducing the amount of taxes your estate will pay while administering your estate. The most important goal is that you have peace of mind knowing that your estate will be administered in accordance with your wishes.

Estate Planning Pyramid

Constructing a pyramid can be helpful for understanding all that goes into an estate plan, much like nutrition and investments. Each level of the pyramid addresses a new level of complexity in your family and financial situation – that is, everyone needs level one, but not all need the later, more complex levels.

Pyramid: Level One

The first level of estate planning provides the most basic protections so it is most suitable to single individuals with no children and few assets. This level of estate plan typically includes the following forms:

Health Care Proxy: This document allows you to appoint people to make decisions about your health care and treatment when you are not capable of doing so. You typically select the surviving spouse and then have a first and second alternate if you wish. Some states call such documents “medical directives” or “medical powers of attorney.”

Living Will: This makes your wishes clear as to whether or not you want to have heroic means used to prolong your life.

Anatomical Gift Instrument: This allows you to have a hospital use organs and other body parts for others in need of a transplant.

Pyramid: Level Two

The second level is most appropriate for individuals in committed relationships. This level includes all the forms listed in the first level, but adds a durable power of attorney. This document grants a power of attorney to the other to manage your financial affairs if you are absent or you become incapacitated.

Pyramid: Level Three

When you have children, you want to ensure that they will be both cared for and provided for in the manner you wish. To achieve this, you need a will to appoint a guardian, for the “care,” and create a trust to manage assets, for the “providing.”

A will is a formal document that designates your personal representative or executor, any alternates, plus a guardian and any alternates for children under age 18, then instructs your personal representative to pay off your debts, and distribute your estate per your wishes.

A trust is an entity that you create and can be used for many purposes. The trustee acts as the owner of what the trust holds, while the beneficiaries get all the benefits from what the trust holds. For estate planning, trusts are used to reduce estate taxes in various ways. Trust vehicles can also describe how and when assets are distributed. For example, the grantor of a trust could insist that assets not go to children until they are age thirty-five. The trust vehicle could also provide where assets flow if all family members die without issue. For example, assets could flow to a charity or educational institution.

Providing for Survivors: You need to address how your assets and any life insurance flow after your death in order to ensure that your resources allow those who survive you to maintain the same standard of living, during their life expectancies, that you all had during your life. If your investments are not sufficient, even after making liquid certain kinds of personal property (e.g., a second home), then …

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Suppose you know a little about working out and partake in the odd training session. But what if you recently felt a compelling urge to get serious about your physical exercise program and really "shape up". How would take it to the next level?

Well, since we are talking about Health-Related Fitness, we need to bear in mind that it is a physical condition which consists of 5 integral components, relating to "good health." These include:

  • Cardiovascular Fitness
  • Body Composition
  • Muscular Strength
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Flexibility

A glimpse at these components will easily tell you that you will need to devise or obtain a workout program which mainly allows for aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Simply put, that means training to enhance the capacity of your heart-lung function and the major muscles of the body. Training would also extend to adequately address biomechanical functions in terms of improving overall mobility of the joints and the tone of connective tissue. Finally, body composition is an important indicator and predictor of health and / or the risk of illness – depending on whether you lead an active or a sedentary lifestyle. Through the requisite workout routines and nutrition plan, one's body composition will reflect a desirable ratio.

In short, it is desirable to augment lean body mass by optimizing muscle condition while lowering the level of body fat via a proper nutrition plan and aerobic exercise.

Now that we have a framework idea of ​​what is entailed to enhance our physical condition and improve our health, we could jump right in and start working out, right? In a manner of speaking yes, but having made the commitment to get "stuck in" and transform our bodies, does not automatically mean we are going to reach our objective. We need a game plan.

Let us consider for a moment how one would successfully voyage through unchartered waters. The answer is relatively simple, but there is a catch: only once you have chosen a destination and a time-frame, do you take out a map, plan your route, prepare your journey and set off. That metaphor applies similarly when it comes to transforming your body, so take heed of the following important points:

  • Know what your goal or objective is

(in this case visualizing your changed body in three months' time – if that is your intended program window). Without direction, merely training and presuming you will somehow succeed along the way will give the same results as I once had – precious little.

  • Carefully read through the training and nutrition principles of your chosen program
  • and familiarize yourself with the required fitness activities for the applicable duration. As I often reiterate, especially to individuals under my guidance, it is most useful to broaden your knowledge and understanding of the many topics associated with the health and physical fitness industry, by reading as widely as possible.

  • Decide whether you will train in your own home or in a fitness center
  • , as this will influence your weight workout techniques (related to muscular strength and endurance training). The aerobic exercise on the other hand, can be done in a gym or on the road, track or sports field. If you decide to do the weight-training at home, you will need to invest in some basic equipment like a set of adjustable dumbbells, a barbell, as well as a bench, etc. I would however recommend, if you are a beginner, to consider utilizing a fitness center (or gym) at first. That way you can eventually set up a home gym understanding more clearly the minimum apparatus requirements for effective training, along with the space required for this option.

  • The preparation part of the journey entails one small daily procedure. You may think of this as a drag or a banality – do not make that mistake. It is of utmost importance to plan your meals and workout routines ahead of time. A simple 10-minute procedure the day before is all it takes. You may eventually find, after completing your program, that you can make it up as you go along. While you could do this to an extent with your meals, it is far more difficult to ad-hoc the
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    The WHO defines HRH (Human resource for health) planning as “the process of estimating the number of persons & the kinds of knowledge, skills, & attitudes they need to achieve predetermined health targets & ultimately health status objectives”.

    HR planning is a dynamic process, involves 3 stages; stocktaking, forecasting, & designing temporary workforce. In the first stage of stocktaking, recruitment & selection of key types of employees align with strategic business plan to achieve specific targets. The second stage of forecasting is subdivided into two phases, forecasting future people needs (demand forecasting) & forecasting availability of people (supply forecasting). The third & final phase involves flexible strategy to recruit temporary employees as per need assessment & cost-effective benefits.

    1. Stock-taking: – The principle is to identify how many people are needed at every level of the organization to achieve business objectives- in line with overall strategic plans – & what kind of knowledge, skills, abilities & other characteristics these people need.

    The optimal staffing of modern health services requires many different types of staff. These include; –

    1. Clinical workers – doctors & nurses.

    2. Technical staff for diagnostic services, such as laboratory & radiology, pharmacy staff.

    3. Environment health workers, such as health inspectors.

    4. Preventive & promotive staff, such as community health workers, administrative staff, etc.

    In a healthcare organization, traditional quantitative approach are used to make enumerative judgments based on subjective managers prediction to allocate certain budgets for employee’s payroll expenditure & need assessment of key employee potentiating responsive to organizational system & design. Resource allocations are best executed with the help of activity based cost management, that controls cost & labor required for specific job/event & reduce wastage.

    For example: Comparative rates of healthcare activity: –

    Inpatient care bed days per capita

    Acute care bed days per capita

    Acute care staff ratio – staff per bed

    Acute care nurses ratio – staff per bed

    Inpatient admissions per 1000 population

    Acute care admissions per 1000 population

    Doctors consultation’s per capita.

    The types of health staff in a particular country are dictated by the kinds of health services provided & level of technology available.

    For example: –

    Nature of health organization: primary, secondary, & tertiary.

    Types of sector: public, private, non-profit funded organization.

    Infrastructure: size of the hospital (200 beds, 400 beds, 1000 beds).

    General (multispecialty) or specific care providers (cardiovascular, cancer).

    2. Forecasting: –

    Demand forecasting: – Planning for the medical workforce is complex & determined by relatively mechanistic estimates of demand for medical care. Dr. Thomas L. Hall (1991) proposed 5 generic methods for estimating demand for health care, such as

    1. Personnel to population ratio method: – This method calculates ratio of number of health

    Personnel as compared with the population count. However, with inappropriate data available, it has serious limitations, such as it is only applicable with acceptable health conditions, a stable health sector, & a limited capacity for planning.

    2. The health-needs method: -This method requires & translates expert opinion about people’s health needs to staff requirements. Health needs are derived from the determination of disease specific mortality & morbidity rates. The staff requirements are evaluated from the norms for the number, kind, frequency, & quality of services,& staffing standards that convert the services into time requirements by a certain category of health workers to perform the services. This method initiates the need for sophisticated data system & survey capabilities, & a high level of planning expertise which are not readily available.

    3. The service -demands method: -This method accounts the numbers & kinds of health services people will use at an anticipated cost of obtaining them, rather than their professionally determined need for such services. This specifically provides data about economical regression pertaining to utilization of private healthcare sector as compared to government funded health sector.

    4. The managed healthcare system’s method: – The managed health care system’s entails a known client population who would have reasonably good access to health amenities. But flexible socio-political trends & economical recession influence healthcare reform policies.

    Supply forecasting: –

    Forecasting HR supply involves using information from the internal & external labor market. The calculation of staff turnover & workforce stability indices measures internal supply …

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    I’ve always felt it important to set fitness goals no matter what stage you’re at with your training – whether starting out with exercise for the very first time, signing up for sessions at your local CrossFit box, aspiring to run a marathon or even just planning to run your first fun run. Fitness goals help us have something to aspire to in our training, something to work towards that keeps us focused and on track to achieving those goals. And nothing beats that sense of accomplishment when you do…

    Pregnancy is no different for me in the sense that I’m still setting myself fitness milestones to nail. Some might find it an odd concept – setting fitness milestones whilst pregnant – as why would you, shouldn’t pregnancy be a time to “maintain” fitness, not improve on it with goals? And whilst I’d agree that yes, trying to break that PR you set in last year’s half-marathon, now that your 5 months pregnant, is not the smart or healthy way to go; for me personally, this present moment is the most important time for me to be setting myself fitness goals. Sure, they won’t be the same goals as they were last year and at the same intensity, but they’re still small fitness milestones I can look forward to trying to achieve during this incredible time of change within my body.

    Pregnancy, without a doubt, is about being a healthy “you” so that you can bring a healthy, newborn life into this world however, all too often society forgets about the changes (both physical as well as emotional) that mum is experiencing along her journey to doing this. Working on maintaining a level of fitness that is both safe and healthy for you and for baby is not only incredibly beneficial for your body, but your emotional well being will thank you as well.

    I know, from my own personal encounters to this point, that there are times where I experience many different emotions about my pregnancy, and not all of them always positive – shock horror! Like any woman, I am grateful for the gift I’ve been given to bring a new life into this world but being grateful doesn’t help me when I’m feeling down about the changes my body is experiencing, frustrated at the fact my moods keep fluctuating and anxious thinking about how I’m going to do this “mum” thing. It’s in moments like these that I find doing some meditation or breathing exercises works wonders, or as is more often the case: throwing on a pair of trainers to release some endorphins with a workout! Setting myself little fitness goals throughout my pregnancy is something that makes me feel happy and positive – achieving a sense of achievement that’s just for me – an achievement that’s unrelated to my pregnancy, and an accolade to the incredible phenomenon that is the female body.

    So, in saying all of that, I thought I’d share with you the fitness goals I’ve set for myself during my pregnancy journey, starting from the point I’m at now: 19 weeks.

    21 weeks – CrossFit Competition Day at my local box

    22 weeks – Mother’s Day Classic Fun Run: 8 km

    25 weeks – CrossFit Benchmark WOD “Helen” (scaled back)

    27 weeks – ParkRun 5 km run

    29 weeks – CrossFit Benchmark WOD “Fran” (scaled back)

    32 weeks – Run Melbourne Fun Run: 5 km

    35 weeks – CrossFit Benchmark WOD “Helen” (scaled back)

    The goals I’ve set post my 7-month mark (week 29 onwards) are a little up in the air, as I really can’t anticipate how I’ll be feeling at that point in my pregnancy. Depending how my joints, muscles and energy levels are holding up, they may end up being adjusted!

    Oh, and just to prove it’s never to late to set a fitness goal or try something new: my partner will be joining me for his first ever fun run and attempt at running any distance over 3km, on May 12th (my 22 week mark). That weekend we’ll both be running (jogging) in the Mother’s Day 8km Classic. Times will be slow and toilet stops will be …

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