Tag: Principle


Cardiorespiratory fitness best describes the health and function of the heart, lungs and circulatory system. Cardiorespiratory fitness also describes the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood, and the transportation of nutrients and waste products to and from the body’s active tissues. Other terms used and applied to the exercise environment are cardiovascular fitness, aerobic endurance and aerobic capacity. These terms are synonymous.

Cardiorespiratory exercise has proved to have many benefits, such as reducing cardiovascular disease by increasing fat utilization and therefore reducing obesity, and the reduction and management of hypertension and cholesterol. Other reported benefits include improved heart function and oxygen consumption, the ability to perform every day tasks more easily, decreased resting heart rate, body fat stores, anxiety and stress and management of diabetes.

A cardiorespiratory program needs to follow general guidelines to ensure maximum safety and effectiveness. These characteristics are essential for measurable improvements. We call this the FITT principle.

Frequency 3-5 times per week

Intensity 60-90% of predicted MHR

Time Duration 15-60 minutes of aerobic exercise

Type Activities; walking, cycling, jogging, swimming, roller blading, cross training, rowing etc.

Exercise FREQUENCY refers to the number of exercise sessions per week that are performed. The ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) recommends 3-5 sessions per week to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and to achieve or maintain optimal body fat levels.

Exercise INTENSITY refers to the amount of effort you put into your training session. There are many methods for monitoring exercise intensity, some have been standardized, and are suitable for application to the general population and for those of different fitness levels.

Heart rate (MHR)

Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

The ‘talk test’ method

Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) is determined by:

Men 220 – age

Women 226 – age

A 34 year old male, would therefore have a MHR of 186 beats per minute (bpm). Your exercise intensity is then put into the equation to give an exercise intensity that is specific to experience, fitness level, capabilities and relative to your fitness goals. Those just starting an exercise regime, or having a low level of fitness can benefit from intensities as low as 50-60% of MHR. Higher intensities as much as 90% of MHR are better suited to the more physically fit. As a general guideline, 60-80% of MHR is sufficient for the average population with no contra-indications to exercise.

RPE The ‘Rate of Perceived Exertion’ scale considers all factors that influence exercise intensity and how we perceive that exercise including fatigue and environmental conditions. A twenty-point scale has been devised that corresponds with Heart Rate intensities and allows the participant to determine their perceived effort. This method teaches us to listen to our bodies instead of ‘zoning out’ and can be used in conjunction with Heart Rate.

The ‘talk test’: This is an easy method that anyone can use. The talk test is based on the principle that if you cannot hold a regular conversation while exercising, your exercise intensity is too high. The intensity should however, be enough to increase core body temperature and promote perspiration.

Exercise TIME is the duration of the exercise and is dependent on the intensity of the session. The ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) suggests a minimum of 15 minutes of continuous exercise to elicit any improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. More deconditioned individuals may require multiple shorter sessions until they develop a base from which improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness can be made.

Your capabilities, interests, available time, equipment, facilities and personal goals determine exercise TYPE. The options are endless and can include any movement that uses large muscle groups, is continuous in nature (for a minimum of 15 minutes) and utilizes the aerobic energy system.

When beginning an exercise program, it is best to take a conservative approach and start at suggested minimums i.e. 3 times per week for 15-20 minutes at no more than 55-65% of MHR.

This intensity should be gradually increased over the forthcoming weeks and months to elicit changes and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance.

The health professionals at Fitcorp Asia can design a program specific to your needs and goals, and help you reach your potential in health, …


Automatic blood pressure (bp) monitors are an integral part of any vital signs monitor used in hospitals, critical care units, emergency rooms, and even homes. The reason is quite simple – While an EKG can give the representation of the electric signals in the heart muscle, the oximeter can give the oxygen content of the blood in the body, only the bp monitor is actually capable of measuring the actual effectiveness of the heart pumping blood into the system.

The importance of blood pressure measurement

In other words, both the EKG and the oximeter could be showing normal values, yet, without the proper blood pressure sensor reading, the patient’s body cells would still not be receiving an amount of oxygen sufficient for normal functioning. Which means, the life of a patient would be endangered without us knowing.

Manual blood pressure meter

Before we look into the workings of an automatic meter, let’s investigate how a manual blood pressure monitor, or NIBP monitor, or high blood pressure bp monitor works. The meter consists of the bp cuff that is filled with air gradually and presses on the main artery in the upper arm. The basic physics of the pressure meter reflects the interplay between the air pressure in the cuff and the air pressure in the artery. There are two principal pressures, the systolic, and the diastolic in the artery. The systolic is the maximal pressure in the artery, and the diastolic is the minimal pressure.

The simple principle of operation is this: When the cuff air pressure is higher than the systolic pressure, the cuff continually squeezes the artery until the blood flow into the lower arm is stopped, and there is no pulsation audible in the stethoscope. When the cuff air pressure is less than the diastolic pressure, the artery pressure always maintains the artery at its full size. In between these two pressures, the expansion and contraction of the artery follows the varying bp in the artery, and the pulsation is audible in the stethoscope attached to the arm.

So, in manual bp monitors, as the manual blood pressure cuff the air pressure is gradually increased up to the diastolic pressure, we begin to hear pulsation, and by further increasing the cuff air pressure we come to the higher, systolic pressure point, where the pulsation disappears again.

How does an automatic blood pressure (bp) monitor work?

The action of an automatic digital bp monitor is quite analogous to the operation of the manual pressure meter with a couple of differences:

  • First, for speed, automatic digital bp monitor will measure the diastolic pressure and the systolic pressure already on the first pass, while increasing the air pressure in the cuff.
  • Second, the air will be provided to the digital bp cuff by an electric pump instead of the manual pump.
  • Third, the pulsation will not be observed by hearing but rather by the built in microphones or other sensor types.


Source by Phil Q Rubis

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