The WHO defines HRH (Human resource for health) planning as “the process of estimating the number of persons & the kinds of knowledge, skills, & attitudes they need to achieve predetermined health targets & ultimately health status objectives”.
HR planning is a dynamic process, involves 3 stages; stocktaking, forecasting, & designing temporary workforce. In the first stage of stocktaking, recruitment & selection of key types of employees align with strategic business plan to achieve specific targets. The second stage of forecasting is subdivided into two phases, forecasting future people needs (demand forecasting) & forecasting availability of people (supply forecasting). The third & final phase involves flexible strategy to recruit temporary employees as per need assessment & cost-effective benefits.
1. Stock-taking: – The principle is to identify how many people are needed at every level of the organization to achieve business objectives- in line with overall strategic plans – & what kind of knowledge, skills, abilities & other characteristics these people need.
The optimal staffing of modern health services requires many different types of staff. These include; –
1. Clinical workers – doctors & nurses.
2. Technical staff for diagnostic services, such as laboratory & radiology, pharmacy staff.
3. Environment health workers, such as health inspectors.
4. Preventive & promotive staff, such as community health workers, administrative staff, etc.
In a healthcare organization, traditional quantitative approach are used to make enumerative judgments based on subjective managers prediction to allocate certain budgets for employee’s payroll expenditure & need assessment of key employee potentiating responsive to organizational system & design. Resource allocations are best executed with the help of activity based cost management, that controls cost & labor required for specific job/event & reduce wastage.
For example: Comparative rates of healthcare activity: –
Inpatient care bed days per capita
Acute care bed days per capita
Acute care staff ratio – staff per bed
Acute care nurses ratio – staff per bed
Inpatient admissions per 1000 population
Acute care admissions per 1000 population
Doctors consultation’s per capita.
The types of health staff in a particular country are dictated by the kinds of health services provided & level of technology available.
For example: –
Nature of health organization: primary, secondary, & tertiary.
Types of sector: public, private, non-profit funded organization.
Infrastructure: size of the hospital (200 beds, 400 beds, 1000 beds).
General (multispecialty) or specific care providers (cardiovascular, cancer).
2. Forecasting: –
Demand forecasting: – Planning for the medical workforce is complex & determined by relatively mechanistic estimates of demand for medical care. Dr. Thomas L. Hall (1991) proposed 5 generic methods for estimating demand for health care, such as
1. Personnel to population ratio method: – This method calculates ratio of number of health
Personnel as compared with the population count. However, with inappropriate data available, it has serious limitations, such as it is only applicable with acceptable health conditions, a stable health sector, & a limited capacity for planning.
2. The health-needs method: -This method requires & translates expert opinion about people’s health needs to staff requirements. Health needs are derived from the determination of disease specific mortality & morbidity rates. The staff requirements are evaluated from the norms for the number, kind, frequency, & quality of services,& staffing standards that convert the services into time requirements by a certain category of health workers to perform the services. This method initiates the need for sophisticated data system & survey capabilities, & a high level of planning expertise which are not readily available.
3. The service -demands method: -This method accounts the numbers & kinds of health services people will use at an anticipated cost of obtaining them, rather than their professionally determined need for such services. This specifically provides data about economical regression pertaining to utilization of private healthcare sector as compared to government funded health sector.
4. The managed healthcare system’s method: – The managed health care system’s entails a known client population who would have reasonably good access to health amenities. But flexible socio-political trends & economical recession influence healthcare reform policies.
Supply forecasting: –
Forecasting HR supply involves using information from the internal & external labor market. The calculation of staff turnover & workforce stability indices measures internal supply …